Ballot Access Groups

ACE Project
The ACE global network promotes credible and transparent electoral processes with emphasis on sustainability, professionalism and trust in the electoral process.

Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections
A complete listing of votes cast in Presidential elections, including numerous third-party candidates and nice maps of vote distribution by state and (on the individual state pages) by county.

Ballot Access News
Ballot Access News is the best source for the current state of all things ballot access.

Brennan Center for Justice
The Brennan Center for Justice at New York University, School of Law is a nonpartisan law and policy institute that seeks to improve our systems of democracy and justice. The Center’s work ranges from voting rights to campaign finance reform, from ending mass incarceration to preserving Constitutional protection in the fight against terrorism.

Center for Competitive Democracy  
The Center for Competitive Democracy works to identify and eliminate barriers to political participation  and to secure free, open and competitive elections by fostering active civic engagement in the political process.

Democracy Chronicles
DC is dedicated to establishing and strengthening democracy across the globe.  See the Third Party Central section for links relating to various third parties in one convenient location.

Fair Vote
Fair Vote researches and proposes common sense changes to strengthen our democracy and ensure all voices are heard and every vote counts in every election.

Texas Secretary of State– Texas  Presidential election results 1848-2012

Vote Smart’s mission is to provide free, factual, unbiased information on candidates and elected officials to ALL Americans.


Research and Resources

National Association of Secretaries of State -A summary of state ballot access laws for presidential candidates in the 2016 general election.

Arizona Secretary of State – Online petition signing for ballot access

The Review of Economic Studies- Political Competition, Policy and Growth: Theory and Evidence from the US. This paper develops a simple model to analyze how a lack of political competition may lead to policies that hinder economic growth. We test the predictions of the model on panel data for the US states. In these data, we find robust evidence that lack of political competition in a state is associated with anti-growth policies: higher taxes, lower capital spending, and a reduced likelihood of using right-to- work laws. We also document a strong link between low political competition and low income growth.

European Journal of Political Economy– Electoral Competition and Endogenous Barriers to Entry. As institutions matter for political and economic outcomes, they are (at least partly) shaped by the interests of political agents acting under these limitations. However, empirical evidence documenting such endogenous change of institutions is scarce. We address the issue by examining the link between the degree of electoral competition and the design of ballot access restrictions in the United States. Exploiting exogenous variation in electoral competition at the state level induced by the federal Voting Rights Act of 1965, our main finding is that ballot access rules have been systematically tightened in response to stronger electoral competition.